The frame is the outer shell of the window, if you are ordering a window it is measured over all the frame size.
A casement is a hinged sash that swings, these can be either side hung or top hung.
Any horizontal bar that splits the window.
Any vertical bar that splits the window.
The vertical portion of the frame. The jambs bear the weight of the casements
Small timber section used to secure the glass in place (along with glazing tape).
Small bevelled profile projecting from the head of the frame designed to enahnce protection from rainwater
A projecting cill is a bevelled profile projecting from the base of the frame.